(Updated March, 2016)




ABE, Y. (1997) Thermal and chemical evolution of the terrestrial magma ocean. Physics of Earth and Planetary

Interiors 100, 27–39.


AGEE, C.B. & WALKER, D. (1988) Static compression and olivine flotation in ultrabasic silicate liquid. Journal of

Geophysical Research 93, 3437–3449.


ALLWOOD, A.C., GROTZINGER, J.P., KNOLL, A.H., BURCH, I.W., ANDERSON, M.S., COLEMAN, M.L., AND KANIK, I. (2009) Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:9548-9555.


ALROY, J. (2010) The shifting balance of diversity among major animal groups. Science 329:1191-1194.




ANBAR, A.D., AND HOLLAND, H.D. (1992) The photochemistry of manganese and the origin of banded iron fmmations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56:2595-2603.


ANBAR, A.D., AND KNOLL, A.H. (2002) Proterozoic ocean chemist1y and evolution: A bioinorganic bridge? Science 297:1137-1142.


ANBAR, A.D., DUAN, Y., LYONS, T.W., ARNOLD, G.L., KENDALL, B., CREASER, RA., KAUFMAN, A.J., GORDON, G.W., SCOTT, C., GARVIN, J., AND BUICK, R. (2007) A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event? Science 317:1903-1906.


ANAND, M., TAYLOR, L.A., NAZAROV, M.A., SHU, J., MAO, H.-K., & HEMLEY, R.J. (2004) Space weathering on airless planetary bodies: Clues from lunar mineral hapkeite. Proceedings of the National of Academy Sciences USA 101, 6847–6851.


ANTHONY, J.W., BIDEAUX, R.A., BLADH, K.W., AND NICHOLS, M.C. (1990) Handbook of Mineralogy. Tucson, Arizona: Mineral Data Publishing.


ARITA, H.T., ROBINSON, J.G., AND REDFORD, K.H. (1990) Rarity in neotropical forest mammals and its ecological correlates. Conservation Biology, 4, 181-192. ATENCIO, D., ANDRADE, M.B., CHRISTY, A.G., GIERÉ, R., & KARTASHOV, P.M. (2010) The pyrochlore supergroup of minerals: Nomenclature. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 673–698.


ASTER, R., BORCHERS, B., AND THURBER, C. (2004) Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems. NY: Elsevier Academic Press.




BAAYEN, R.H. (2001) Word Frequency Distributions. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.


BARLEY, M.E., BEKKER, A., AND KRAPEZ, B. (2005) Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic global tectonics, environmental change and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Eaiih and Planetaiy Science Letters 238:156-171.


BECHHOFER, S., YESILADA, Y., STEVENS, R., JUPP, S., AND HORAN, B. (2008) Using ontologies and vocabularies for dynamic linking, Internet computing. IEEE 12:32-39.


BEKKER, A., HOLLAND, H.D., WANG, P.-L., RUMBLE, D. III, STEIN, H.J., HANNAH, J.L., COETZEE, L.L., AND BEUKES, N.L. (2004) Dating the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Nature 427:117-120.


BENNETT, K.P. & CAMPBELL, C. (2000) Support vector machines: hype or hallelujah? ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter 2, 1–13.


BELLUSSI, G., CARATI, A., RIZZO, C., AND MILLINI, R. (2013) New trends in the synthesis of crystalline microporous materials. Catalysis Science and Technology, 3, 833-857.


BINZEL, R.P. & XU, S. (1993) Chips off asteroid 4 Vesta: Evidence for the parent body of basaltic achondrite

meteorites. Science 260, 186–191.


BISH, D.L. AND MING, D.W. [EDITORS] (2001) Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Applications. Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Volume 45. Chantilly, Virginia: Mineralogical Society of America.


BOGATIKOV, O.A., GORSHKOV, A.I., MOKHOV, A.V., ASHIKHMINA, N.A., & SIVTSOV, A.V. (2001) Cadmiumbearing wurtzite and eskolaite: New ore minerals in the Luna 24 regolith. Doklady Earth Sciences 379(6), 679–681.


BOND, J.C., O’BRIEN, D.P., & LAURETTA, D.S. (2010) The compositional diversity of extrasolar planets. I. In situ simulations. Astrophysical Journal 715, 1050–1070.


BOSAK, T., LIANG, B., SIM, M.S., AND PETROFF, A.P. (2009) Morphological record of oxygenic photosynthesis in conical stromatolites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA  106:10939-10943.


BOWEN, H.J.M. (1979) Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, London, England.


BRACKEN, M.E.S. AND LOW, N.H.N. (2012) Realistic losses of rare species disproportionately impact higher trophic levels. Ecology Letters, 15, 461-467.


BRASIER, M.D., GREEN, O.R., LINDSAY, J.F., MCLAUGHLIN, N., STEELE, A., AND STOAKES, C. (2005) Critical testing of Eaiih's oldest putative fossil assemblage from the 3.5 Ga Apex che1i, Chinaman   Creek, Western Australia. Precambrian Research 140:55-102.


BRAMSON, M., COX, J.T., & DURRETT, R. (1996) Spatial models for species-area curves. Annals of Probability 24, 1727–1751.


BRISABOA, N.R., LADRA, S., AND NAVAIRN, G. (2014) Compact representation of web graphs with extended functionality. Information Systems 39:152-174.


BRISI, C. AND MOLINARI, A. (1958) Il sistema osido ramicoanidride vanadica. Annali di Chimica Roma, 48, 263-269.


BROCKS, J.J., LOGAN, G.A, BUICK, R., AND SUMMONS, RE. (1999) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaiyotes.  Science 285:1033-1036.


BROWNLEE, D. & WARD, P. (2004) Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. Copernicus,

New York, United States.


BUICK, R. (2008) When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B363:2731-2743.


BURGISSER, A. AND SCAILLET, B. (2007) Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface. Nature 445:194-196.


BURNS, P.C. (2005) U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1839–1894. CANFIELD, D. (2014) Oxygen: A Four-Billion Year History. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey United States.


BYRNE, S. AND INGERSOLL, A.P. (2003) A sublimation model for Martian polar ice features. Science, 299, 1051–1053.




CALDEIRA, K. AND KASTING, J.F. (1992) Susceptibility of the early Earth to ilTeversible glaciation caused by carbon dioxide clouds. Nature 359:226-228.


CANFIELD, D.E. (1998) A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry. Nature 396:450-453.


CANFIELD, D.E., HABICHT, K.S., AND THAMDRUP, B. (2000) The Archean sulfur cycle and the early histmy of atmospheric oxygen. Science 288 :658-661.


CANFIELD, D.E., POULTON, S.W., AND NARBONNE, G.M. (2007) Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life. Science 315:92-95.


CANFIELD, D.E. (2014) Oxygen: A Four-Billion Year History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.


CANIL, D. (1997) Vanadium partitioning and the oxidation state of Archean komatiite magmas, Nature 389:842-845.


CANIL, D. (2002) Vanadium in peridotites, mantle redox and tectonic environments: Archean to present. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 195:75-90.


CARPENTER, P., EDMUNSON, J., COHEN, B.A., ZEIGLER, R.A., & JOLLIFF, B.L. (2011) First lunar occurrence of keiviite-(Y) in troctolitic anorthosite 76335. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2011 42, no. 2767.


CARTER, C.W., JR. (2008) Whence the genetic code: Thawing the “frozen accident.” Heredity 100, 339–340.


CARTER-BOND, J.C., O’BRIEN, D.P., & RAYMOND, S.N. (2012) The compositional diversity of extrasolar terrestrial planets. II. Migration simulations. Astrophysical Journal 760 (44), 13 p.


CATLING, D.C. AND CLAIRE, M.W. (2005) How Eaiih's atmosphere evolved to an oxic state: A status repmi. Eaiih and Planetary Science Letters 237:1-20.


CATLING, D., ZAHNLE, K., AND MCKAY, C. (2001) Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the in"eversible oxidation of early Earth. Science 293:839-843.


CHAKRABAIII, R., A.H. KNOLL, S.B. JACOBSEN, AND W.W. FISCHER (2012) Silicon isotopic variability of Proterozoic che1is. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 91:187-201.


CHAMBERS, J. (2010a) Terrestrial planet formation. In Exoplanets (S. Seager, ed.). University of Arizona Press,

Tucson, Arizona, United States (297–317).


CHAMBERS, J. (2010b) Stellar elemental abundance patterns: Implications for planet formation. Astrophysical Journal 724, 92–97.



low-mass star. Nature 462, 891–894.


CHIRAT, R., MOULTON, D.E., & GORIELY, A. (2013) Mechanical basis of morphogenesis and convergent

evolution of spiny seashells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110, 6015–6018.


CHRISTY, A. (2015) Causes of anomalous mineralogical diversity in the Periodic Table. Mineralogical Magazine

79(1), 33–49.


CLANTON, U.S., MCKAY, D.S., WAITS, G., & FUHRMAN, R. (1978) Sublimate morphology on 74001 and 74002 orange and black glassy droplets. Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 9, 1945–1957.


CLEAVES, H.J., II, SCOTT, A.M., HILL, F.C., LESZCZYNSKI, J., SAHAI, N., & HAZEN, R.M. (2012) Mineral-organic interfacial processes: potential roles in the origins of life. Chemical Society Reviews 41, 5502–5525. doi:10.1039/c2cs35112a.


CONDIE, K.C., AND ASTER, R.C. (2010) Episodic zircon age spectra of orogenic granitoids: The supercontinent connection and continental growth. Precambrian Research 180:227-236.


CONWAY-MORRIS, S. (1998) The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals. Oxford

University Press, Oxford, England.


CONWAY-MORRIS, S. (2003) Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe. Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge, England.


CRICK, F.H.C. (1968) The origin of the genetic code. Journal of Molecular Biology 38, 367–379.




DASGUPTA, R. (2013) Ingassing, storage, and outgassing of terrestrial carbon through geologic time. Reviews in

Mineralogy and Geochemistry 75, 183–229.


DAVID, L.A., AND ALM, E.J. (2011) Rapid evolutionaiy innovation during an Archean genetic expansion. Nature 469:93-96.


DAVILA, A.F. & MCKAY, C.P. (2014) Chance and necessity in biochemistry: Implications for the search for extraterrestrial biomarkers in Earth-like environments. Astrobiology 14, 534–540.


DELARUE, M. (2007) An asymmetric rule in the assignment of codons: Possible clue to a quick early evolution of the genetic code via successive binary choices. RNA 13, 1–9.


DELGADO-MENA, E., ISRAELIAN, G., GONZALEZ-HERNANDEZ, J.I., BOND, J.C., SANTOS, N.C., UDRY, S., & MAYOR, M. (2010) Chemical clues on the formation of planetary systems: C/O versus Mg/Si for HARPS GTO sample. Astrophysical Journal 725, 2349. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/725/2/2349


DESMARAIS, D.J., STRAUSS, H., SUMMONS, R.E., AND HAYES, J.M. (1992) Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment. Nature 359:605-609.

DENCE, M.R., DOUGLAS, J.A.V., PLANT, A.G., & TRAILL, R.J. (1971) Mineralogy and petrology of some Apollo 12 samples. Proceedings of the Second Lunar Science Conference 1, 285–299.


DESCH, S.J. (2007) Mass distribution and planet formation in the solar nebula. Astrophysical Journal 671, 878–893.


DICKSON, J.A.D. (2002) Fossil echinode1ms as monitor of the Mg/Ca ratio of Phanerozoic oceans.

Science 298:1222-1224.


DOBSON, F.S., YU, J., AND SMITH, A.T. (1995) The importance of evaluating rarity. Conservation Biology, 9, 1648-1651.


DOMAGAL-GOLDMAN, S.D., KASTING, J.P., JOLMSTON, D.T., AND FARQUHAI·, J. (2008) Organic haze, glaciations and multiple sulfur isotopes in the Mid-Archean Era. Eaiih and Planetaiy Science Letters 269:29-40.


DONNELLY, T.H., SHERGOLD, J.H., SOUTHGATE, P.N., AND BARNES, CJ. (1990) Events leading to global phosphogenesis around the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundaiy. In Phosphorite Research and Development, Geological Society Special Publication 52:273-287.


DOWNS, R.T. (2006) The RRUFF Project: an integrated study of the chemistry, crystallography, Raman and infrared spectroscopy of minerals. Program and Abstracts of the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association, Kobe, Japan, O03-13.


DOWNS, R.T., AND HALL-WALLACE, M. (2003) The American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database. American Mineralogist 88:247-250.


DOWTY, E., KEIL, K., & PRINZ, M. (1974) Igneous rocks from Apollo l6 rake samples. In Proceedings of the Fifth Lunar Science Conference: Mineralogy and Petrology (J. Dorman, F. Duennebier, D.S. McKay, & L.E. Nyquist, eds.). Supplement 5, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 1, 431–445.


DUTKIEWICZ, A., VOLK, H., GEORGE, S.C., RIDLEY, J., AND BUICK, R. (2006) Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing fluid inclusions: an uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event. Geology 34:437.


DYMEK, R.F., ALBEE, A.L., & CHODOS, A.A. (1975) Comparative petrology of lunar cumulate rocks of possible

primary origin; dunite 72415, troctolite 76535, norite 78235, and anorthosite 62237. Proceedings of the Sixth Lunar Science Conference 1, 301–341.




EL GORESY, A. (1976) Oxide minerals in lunar rocks. Reviews in Mineralogy 3, EG-1–EG-72.


ELARDO, S.M., MCCUBBIN, F.M., & SHEARER, C.K., JR. (2012) Chromite symplectites in Mg-suite troctolite

76535 as evidence for infiltration metasomatism of a lunar layered intrusion. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 87, 154–177.


ELIE, M., NOUEIRA, A.C.R., NEDELEC, A. TRINDADE, R.I.F., AND KENIG, F. (2007) A red algal bloom in the aftermath of the Marinoan Snowball Eaiih. Tena Nova 19:303-308.


ELKINS-TANTON, L. (2012) Magma oceans in the inner solar system. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 40, 113–139.


ELKINS-TANTON, L. (2013) Evolutionary dichotomy for rocky planets. Nature 497, 570–572.


EMSLEY, J. (1991) The Elements, 2nd edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.


ENGLAND, G.L., RASMUSSEN, B., KRAPEZ, B., AND GROVES, D.L. (2002) Paleoenvironmental significance of rounded pyrite in siliciclastic sequences of the Late Archean Witwatersrand Basin: Oxygen-deficient atmosphere or hydrothermal alteration. Sedimentology 49:1133- 1136.


ESSENE, E.J. & FISHER, D.C. (1986) Lightning strike fusion; extreme reduction and metal-silicate liquid immiscibility. Science 234, 189–193.


EVERT, S. (2004) Simple LNRE model for random character sequences. Proceedings of JADT (Journées d’Analyse

statistique des Données Textuelles), 411–422.


EVERT, S. & BARON, M. (2008) Statistical Models for Word Frequency Distributions, Package zipfR. Retrieved from




FALKOWSKI, P.G., AND GODFREY, L.V. (2008) Electrons, life and the evolution of Earth's oxygen cycle.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B27:2705-2716.


FALKOWSKI,  P.G., AND ISOZAKI, Y. (2008) The story of 02. Science 322:540-542.


FALKOWSKI, P.G., FENCHEL, T., AND DELONG, E.F. (2008) The microbial engines that drive Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Science 320: 1034-1039.


FARQUHAR, J., SAVARINO, I., AIRIEAU, S., AND THIEMENS, M.H. (2001) Observations of wavelength­ sensitive, mass-independent sulfur isotope effects during S02 photolysis: Implications for the early atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:1-11.



A.J.  (2007) Isotopic  evidence  for mesoarchean  anoxia  and  changing  atmospheric  sulphur chemistry. Nature 449:706-709.


FAYEK, M.J., UTSUNOMIYA, S., PFIFFNER, S.M., ANOVITZ, L.M., WHITE, D.C., RICIPUTI, L.R., EWING, R.C., AND STADERMANN, F.J. (2005) Nanoscale chemical and isotopic characterization of Geobacter   Sulfurreducens   surfaces   and   bio-precipitated   uranium   minerals.   Canadian Mineralogist   43:1631-1641.


FENNELL, K., FOLLOWS, M., AND FALKOWSKI, P.G. (2005) The co-evolution of the nitrogen, carbon and oxygen cycles in the Proterozoic ocean.  American Journal of Science 305:526-545.


FIKE, D.A., GROTZINGER, J.P., PRATT, L.M., AND SUMMONS, R.E. (2006) Oxidation of the Ediacaran ocean. Nature 444:744-747.


FINKBEINER, A. (2014) Planets in chaos. Nature 511, 22–24. FREELAND, S.J. & HURST, L.D. (1998) The genetic code is one in a million. Journal of Molecular Evolution 47, 238–248.


FLANNERY, D.T., AND WALTER, R.M. (2012) Archean tufted microbial mats and the Great Oxidation Event. Australian Journal of earth Sciences 59:1-11.


FOX, P., AND HENDLER, J. (2009) Semantic eScience: Encoding meaning in next-generation digitally enhanced science. In: The Fourth Paradigm: Data Intensive Scientific Discovery, Eds. T. Hey, S. Tansley, and K. Tolle, Microsoft External Research, pp. 145-150.


FOX, P., AND HENDLER, J. (2011) Changing the equation on scientific data visualization. Science 331:705-708.


FOX, P., MCGUINNESS, D.L., MIDDLETON, D., CINQUINI, L., DARNELL, J.A., GARCIA, J., WEST, P., BENEDICT, J., SOLOMON, S.  (2006) Semantically-enabled large-scale science data repositories. 5th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC06), ed. Cruz et al., Springer­ Verlag, Berlin, LNCS 4273:792-805.


FOX, P., MCGUINNESS, D.L., CINQUINI, L., WEST, P., GARCIA, J., BENEDICT, J., MIDDLETON, D. (2009) Ontology-supported scientific data frameworks: The virtual solar-terrestrial observatory experience. Computers and Geosciences, special issue on Geoscience Knowledge Representation for Cyberinfrastructure 35:724-738.


FOX, P., MCGUINNESS, D.L., AND THE VSTO TEAM (2011) Semantic cyberlnfrastructure: The virtual solar-terrestrial observatory. Cambridge University Press monograph on Geoinformatics: Cyberinfrastructure for Solid Earth Sciences, Ed. C. Barn and R. Keller. pp. 21-36.


FREI, R., GAUCHER, C., POULTON, S.W., AND CANFIELD, D.E. (2009) Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461 :250-253.


FRONDEL, C. (1962) Non-existence of native tantalum. American Mineralogist 47, 786–787.


FRONDEL, J.W. (1975) Lunar Mineralogy. John Wiley & Sons, New York, United States, 323 p.


FURUKAWA, Y., HORIUCHI, M., & KAKEGAWA, T. (2013) Selective stabilization of ribose by borate. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biospheres 43, 353–361.




GALUSKINA, I.O., VAPNIK, Y., LAZIC, B., ARMBRUSTER, T., MURASHKO, M., AND GALUSKIN, E.V. (2014) Harmunite CaFe2O4: A new mineral from the Jabel Harmun, West Bank, Palestinian Autonomy, Israel. American Mineralogist, 99, 965-975.


GASTON, K.J. (1994) Rarity. London, Chapman & Hall.


GASTON, K.J. (2012) Ecology: the importance of being rare. Nature, 487, 46-47.


GAY, P., BANCROFT, G.M., & BOWN, M.G. (1970) Diffraction and Mössbauer studies of minerals from lunar soils and rocks. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference Proceedings 1, 481–497.


GHIORSO, M.S., AND SACK R. (1995) Chemical Mass Transfer in Magmatic Processes IV. A revised and internally consistent the1modynamic model for the interpolation and extrapolation of  liquid-solid   equilibria   in magmatic   systems   at   elevated   temperatures   and pressures. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 119:197-212.


GHIORSO, M.S., HIRSCHMANN, M.M., REINERS, P.W., AND KRESS, V.C. III (2002) The pMELTS: A revision of MELTS for improved calculation of phase relations and major element pmiitioning related to paiiial melting of the mantle to 3 GPa. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems  3, doi:l0.1029/2001GC000217.


GHOSE, S., MCCALLUM, I.S., & TIDY, E. (1973) Luna 20 pyroxenes; exsolution and phase transformation as indicators of petrologic history. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 831–839.


GOLDEN, J., MCMILLAN, M., DOWNS, R.T., HYSTAD, G., STEIN, H.J., ZIMMERMAN, A., SVERJENSKY, D.A., ARMSTRONG, J., & HAZEN, R.M. (2013) Rhenium variations in molybdenite (MoS2): Evidence for progressive subsurface oxidation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 366, 1–5.


GOLDSTEIN, J.I., HEWINS, R.H., & ROMIG, A.D., JR. (1976) Carbides in lunar soils and rocks. Proceedings of the Lunar Science Conference 7, 807–818.


GOULD, S.J. (1989) Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. Norton, New York, United



GOULD, S.J. (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.


GREW, E.S., KRIVOVICHEV, S.V., HAZEN, R.M., AND HYSTAD, G. (2016) Evolution of structural complexity in boron minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, in press.


GREW, E.S. & HAZEN, R.M. (2014) Beryllium mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 99, 999–1021.


GREW, E.S., HÅLENIUS, U., PASERO, M., & BARBIER, J. (2008) Recommended nomenclature for the sapphirine and surinamite groups (sapphirine supergroup). Mineralogical Magazine 72, 839–876.


GRIEVE, R.A.F. & PLANT, A.G. (1973) 64455, an ellipsoidal glass coated highland basalt projectile. Abstracts, Lunar Science IV, 317–319.


GROSS, S. (1977) The mineralogy of the Hatrurim formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel Bulletin, 70, 1-80.


GUO, Q.J., STRAUSS, H., KAUFMAN, A.J., SCHRODER, S., GUTZMER, J., WING, B., BAKER, M.A., BEKKER, A., JIN, Q.S., KIM, S.T., AND FARQUHAR, J. (2009) Reconstructing Earth's surface oxidation across the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Geology 37:399-402.


GUSEV, V.A. & SCHULZE-MAKUCH, D. (2004) Genetic code: Lucky chance or fundamental law of nature? Physics of Life Reviews 1, 202–229.




HABICHT, K.S., GADE, M., THANDRUP, B., BERG, P., AND CANFIELD, D.E. (2002) Calibration of sulfate levels in the Archean ocean. Science 298:2372-2374.


HALEVY, I., JOHNSTON,  D.T., AND SCHRAG, D.P. (2010) Explaining the structure of the Archean mass-independent sulfur isotope record. Science 329:204-207.


HALEVY, I.(2013) Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110:17644-17649.


HALVERSON, G.P., HOFFMAN, P.F., SCHRAG, D.P., MALOOF, A.C., AND RICE, A.H.N. (2005) Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117:1-27.


HAMANO, K., ABE, Y., & GENDA, H. (2013) Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean. Nature 497, 607–610.


HAMMER, O., HARPER, D.A.T., AND RYAN, P.D. (2001) PAST: Paleontological statistical software

package for education and data analysis., issue 1.


HARDIE, L.A. (1996) Secular variation in seawater chemistry: An explanation for the coupled secular variation in the mineralogies of marine limestones and potash evaporites over the past 600 m.y. Geology 24:279-283.


HARDIE, L.A. (2003) Secular variations in Precambrian seawtare chemistry and the timing of Precambrian aragonite seas and calcite seas. Geology 31:785-788.


HAREL, A., BROMBERG, Y., FALKOWSKI, P.G., AND BHATTACHARYA, D. (2014) The evolutionmy hist01y of redox metal-binding domains across the tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, in press.


HARMS, M.J. & THORNTON, J.W. (2014) Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution. Nature 512, 203–207.


HARVEY, P. (1970) Stylistic analysis. Mathematical Gazette 54, 361–368.


HAZEN, R.M. (2005) Genesis: The Scientific Question for Life’s Origins. National Academy Press, Washington,

District of Columbia, United States.


HAZEN, R.M. (2006) Mineral surfaces and the prebiotic selection and organization of biomolecules (Presidential

Address to the Mineralogical Society of America). American Mineralogist 91, 1715–1729.


HAZEN, R.M. (2013) Paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon: A preliminary list. American Journal of Science 313,



HAZEN, R.M. (2014) Data-driven abductive discovery in mineralogy. American Mineralogist 99, 2165–2170.


HAZEN, R.M., AND J.S. TREFIL (2009) Science Matters, 2nd Edition. New York: Doubleday, 360 p.


HAZEN, R.M., EWING, R.J AND SVE1JENSKY, D.A. (2009)  Evolution of uranium and · thorium minerals. American Mineralogist 94:1293.-1311.


HAZEN, R.M. & ELDREDGE, N.L. (2010) Themes and variations in complex systems. Elements 6, 43–46.


HAZEN, R.M., PAPINEAU, D., BLEEKER, W., DOWNS, R.T., FERRY, J., MCCOY, T., SVERJENSKY, D., & YANG, H. (2008) Mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 93, 1693–1720.


HAZEN, R.M., BEKKER, A., BISH, D.L., BLEEKER, W., DOWNS, R.T., FARQUHAR, J., FERRY, J.M., GREW, E.S., KNOLL, A.H., PAPINEAU, D., RALPH, J.P., SVERJENSKY, D.A., & VALLEY, J.W. (2011) Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research. American Mineralogist 96, 953–963.


HAZEN, R.M., GOLDEN, J., DOWNS, R.T., HYSTAD, G., GREW, E.S., AZZOLINI, D., & SVERJENSKY, D.A. (2012) Mercury (Hg) mineral evolution: A mineralogical record of supercontinent assembly, changing ocean geochemistry, and the emerging terrestrial biosphere. American Mineralogist 97, 1013–1042.


HAZEN, R.M., JONES, A., KAH, L., & SVERJENSKY, D.A. (2013) Carbon mineral evolution. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 75, 79–107.


HAZEN, R.M., SVERJENSKY, D.A., AZZOLINI, D., BISH, D.L., ELMORE, S.C., HINNOV, L., & MILLIKEN, R.E. (2013) Clay mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 98, 2007–2029.


HAZEN, R.M., LIU, X.-M., DOWNS, R.T., GOLDEN, J., PIRES, A.J., GREW, E.S., HYSTAD, G., ESTRADA, C., AND SVERJENSKY, D.A. (2014) Mineral evolution: Episodic metallogenesis, the supercontinent cycle, and the co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. Economic Geology Special Publication, 18, 1-15.


HAZEN, R.M., GREW, E.S, DOWNS, R.T., GOLDEN, J., AND HYSTAD, G. (2015) Mineral ecology: chance and necessity in the mineral diversity of terrestrial planets. Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 295-323. DOI: 10.3749/canmin.1400086


HAZEN, R.M., HYSTAD, G., DOWNS, R.T., GOLDEN, J., PIRES, A., AND GREW, E.S. (2015) Earth’s “missing” minerals. American Mineralogist, 100, 2344-2347.  DOI: 10.2138/am-2015-5417.


HEY, T., TANSLEY, S., AND TOLLE, K. [Editors] (2009) The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redland, WA: Microsoft External Research.


HINKEL, N.R. (2012) Stellar Abundances in the Solar Neighborhood. Ph.D. Thesis, Arizona State University,

Tempe, Arizona, United States.


HINTON, R.W. & MEYER, C. (1991) Ion probe analysis of zircon and yttrobetafite in a lunar granite. Proceedings of the 22nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 575–576.


HOFMANN, A., BEKKER, A., ROUXEL, 0., RUMBLE, D., AND MASTER,  S. (2009) Multiple sulfur and iron isotope composition of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentaiy rocks: A new tool for provenance analysis. Eaiih and Planetmy Science Letters 286:436-445.


HOLLAND, H.D. (1984) The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Ocean. Princeton Series in Geochemistry. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.


HOLLAND, H.D. (2006) The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 361:903-915 . .


HOLLAND, T.J.B., AND POWELL, R. (1998) An internally consistent thennodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest. Journal of Metamorphic Petrology 16:309-343.


HOPKINS, G.W., THACKER, J.I., DIXON, A.F.G., WARING, P., AND TELFER, M.G. (2002) Identifying rarity in insects: the importance of host plant range. Biological Conservation, 105, 293-307.


HOUSELY, R.M., KAMPF, A.R., MILLS, S.J., MARTY, J., AND THORNE, B. (2011) The remarkable occurrence of rare secondary tellurium minerals at Otto Mountain, near Baker, California. Rocks & Minerals, 86, 132-142.


HUBBELL, S.P. (2001) The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Princeton University

Press, Princeton, New Jersey, United States.


HUGGETT, R.J. (1995) Geoecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Rutledge, Chapman & Hall, London, England.


HUGHES, J.M. AND HADIDIACOS, C.G. (1985) Fingerite, Cu11O2(VO4)6, a new vanadium sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador: descriptive mineralogy. American Mineralogist, 70, 193-196.


HULL, P.M., DARROCH, S.A.F., AND ERWIN, D.H. (2015) Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. Nature, 528, 345-351.


HYSTAD, G., DOWNS, R.T., & HAZEN, R.M. (2015) Mineral frequency distribution data conform to a LNRE model: Prediction of Earth’s “missing” minerals. Mathematical Geosciences, in press.


HYNDMAN, R.D. AND DAVIS, E.E. (1992) A mechanism for the formation of methane hydrate and sea-floor bottom-simulating reflectors by vertical fluid expulsion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 7025-7041.


HYSTAD, G., DOWNS, R.T., GREW, E.S., AND HAZEN, R.M. (2015b) Statistical analysis of mineral diversity and distribution: Earth’s mineralogy is unique. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 426, 154-157.




JAANUSSON, V. (1981) Functional thresholds in evolutionary progress. Lethaia 14, 251–260.


JAIN, M., FLYNN, D.F.B., PRAGER, C.M., HART, G.M., DEVAN, C.M., AHRESTANI, F.S., PLAMER, M.I., BUNKER, D.E., KNOPS, J.M.H., JOUSEAU, C.F., AND NAEEM, S. (2013) The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies. Ecology and Evolution, 4, 104-112.


JOHNSTON, D.T., POULTON, S.W., DEHLER, C., POIER, S., HUSSON, J., CANFIELD, D.E., AND KNOLL, A.H. (2010) An emerging picture of Neoproterozoic ocean chemistry: Insights from the Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, USA. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290:64-73.


JOHNSON, J.W., OELKERS, E.H., & HELGESON, H.C. (1992) SUPCRT92: A software package for calculating the standard molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions from 1 to 5000

bars and 0° to 1000°C. Computers and Geoscience 18, 899–947.


JOLLIFF, B.L. (1993) A monazite-bearing clast in Apollo 17 melt breccia. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 24, 725–726.


JOLLIFF, B.L., HUGHES, J.M., FREEMAN, J.J., & ZEIGLER, R.A. (2006) Crystal chemistry of lunar merrillite and comparison to other meteoritic and planetary suites of whitlockite and merrillite. American Mineralogist 91, 1583–1595.


JONES, A.P., GENGE, M., & CARMODY, L. (2013) Carbonate melts and carbonatites. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 75, 289–322.


JÖNSSON, J., JÖNSSON, J., AND LÖVGREN, L. (2006) Precipitation of secondary Fe(III) minerals from acid mine drainage. Applied Geochemistry, 21, 437-445.


JONSSON, C. M., JONSSON, C. L., SVE1JENSKY, D. A., CLEAVES II, H. J., AND HAZEN, R. M., 2009. Attachment of I-Glutamate to rutile (a-Ti02): A potentiometric, adsorption, and surface complexation study. Langmuir 25:12127-12135.




KAH, L.C., AND RIDING, R. (2007) Mesoproterozoic carbon dioxide levels inferred from calcified cyanobacteria. Geology 35:799-802.


KAH, L.C., LYONS, T.W., AND FRANK, T.D. (2004) Low marine sulphate and protracted oxygenation of the Proterozoic biosphere. Nature 431 :834-837.


KALTENEGGER, L., SASSELOV, D., & RUGHEIMER, S. (2013) Water-planets in the habitable zone: Atmospheric chemistry, observable features, and the case of Kepler-62e and -62f. Astrophysical Journal Letters 775, 47–52.


KASTING, J.F. (2010) How To Find a Habitable Planet: Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey,

United States.


KASTING, J.F. (2001) The rise of atmospheric oxygen. Science 293:819-820.


KASTING, J.F. (2013) What caused the rise of atmospheric 02? Chemical Geology 362:13-25.


KASTING,  J.F. AND  SIEFE1I, J.L. (2002) Life  and the evolution  of Emih's  atmosphere.  Science

296: 1066-1068.


KAUFMAN, A.I., JOHNSTON, D.T., FARQUHAR, J., MASTERSON, A.L., LYONS, T.W., BATES, S., ANBAR, A.D., GARVIN, J., AND BUICK, R. (2007) Late Archean biospheric oxygenation and atmospheric evolution. Science 317: 1900-1903.


KELLER, B. & SCHOENE, B. (2012) Statistical geochemistry reveals disruption in secular lithospheric evolution about 2.5 Gya ago. Nature 485, 490–493.


KHANDEWAL, A., AND FOX, P. (2014) Towards a web ontology language for descriptions of continuous processes. Journal of Web Semantics, under review.


KIESSLING, W., SIMPSON, C., AND FOOTE, M. (2010) Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in.the Phanerozoic. Science 327:196-198.


KIM, J.D., SENN, S., HAREL, A., JELEN, B.I., AND FALKOWSKI, P.G. (2013) Discovering the electronic circuit diagram of life: structural relationships among transition metal binding sites in oxidoreductases. Philosophical 'Transactions of the Royal Society London B368:20120257.


KIM, H.-J., RICARDO, A., ILLANGKOON, H.I., KIM, M.J., CARRIGAN, M.A., FRYE, F., AND BENNER, S.A. (2011) Synthesis of carbohydrates in mineral-guided prebiotic cycles. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133, 9457–9468.


KLEIN, C., JR. (1972) Lunar materials: their mineralogy, petrology and chemistry. Earth-Science Reviews 8, 169–204.


KLEIN, C. (2005) Some Precambrian banded iron-fonnations (BIFs) from around the world: Their age, geologic setting, mineralogy, metamorphism, geochemistry, and origin. American Mineralogist 90:1473-1499.


KNOLL, A.H. (2003) Life on a Young Planet. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.


KNOLL, A.H.  (2003) Biomineralization  and  evolutionaiy histmy. Reviews  in Mineralogy  and Geochemistry 54:329-356.


KNOLL, A.H., BAMBACH, R.K., PAYNE, J., PRUSS, S., AND FISCHER, W. (2007) A paleophysiological perspective on the end-Permian mass extinction and its aftermath. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256:295-313.


KNOLL, A.H. (2013) Systems paleobiology.  Geological Society of America Bulletin 125:3-13.


KOHN, D.D. & WALSH, D.M. (1994) Plant species richness— The effect of island size and habitat diversity. Journal of Ecology 82, 367–377.



Decoupling  photochemical  Fe(II)  oxidation from shallow-water BIF deposition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 258:87-100.


KOPPARAPU, R.K. (2013) A revised estimate of the occurrence rate of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones around Kepler m-dwarfs. Astrophysical Journal Letters 767, L8.


KRIVOVICHEV, S.V. (2012) Topological complexity of crystal structures: quantitative approach. Acta Crystallographica, A68, 393-398.


KUMP L.R., AND BARLEY, M.E. (2007) Increased subaerial volcanism and the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.5 billion years ago. Nature 448: 1033-1036.


KUMP, L.R., KASTING, J.F., AND BARLEY, M.E. (2001) Rise of atmospheric oxygen and the "upside down" Archean mantle. Geochemistiy, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2, Paper #2000GCOOO I 14.


KVENVOLDEN, K.A. (1995) A review of the geochemistry of methane in natural gas hydrate. Organic Geochemistry, 23, 997-1008.




LAAKSO, T.A., AND SCHRAG, D.P. (2014) Regulation of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic.

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 388:81-91.


LAZ’KO, Y.Y., LAPUTINA, I.P., SVESHNIKOVA, Y.V., & UDOVKINA, N.G. (1980) Material composition and petrology of fragment 24182. Lunar Soil from Mare Crisium, Nauka, Moscow, 147–157 (in Russian).


LABERGE, G.L. (1973) Possible biological origin of Precambrian iron-fonnations. Economic Geology  68:1098 1109.


LARGE, R.R., HALPIN, J.A., DANYUSHEVSKY, L.V., MASLENNIKOV, V.V., BULL, S.W., LONG, J.A., GREGORY, D.D., LOUNEJEVA, E., LYONS, T.W., SACK, P.J., MCGOLDRICK, P.J., AND CLAVER, C.R. (2014) Trace element content of sedimentary  pyrite as a new proxy for deep-time ocean­ atmosphere evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Latters 389:209-220.


LASKEY, K.B. (2006) MEBN: A Logic for Open-World Probabilistic Reasoning, MARS online


LEBO, T., ERICKSON, J., DING, L., GRAVES, A.,WILLIAMS, G., DIFRANZO, D., LI, X., MICHAELIS, J,, ZHENG, J., FLORES, J., SHANGGUAN, Z., MCGUINNESS, D.L., AND HENDLER, J. (2011) Producing and Using Linked Open Government Data in the TWC LOGD Pmial,  in Linking Government Data, ed. Wood, David, pp. 51-72, Springer, New York.


LECCA, P., LAURENZI, I., & JORDAN, F. (2013) Deterministic Versus Stochastic Modeling in Biochemistry and Systems Biology. Woodhouse Publishing, Cambridge, England.


LEHNERT, K.A., WALKER, D., & SARBAS, B. (2007) EarthChem: A geochemistry data network. Geochimica et

Cosmochimica Acta 71, A559.


LEVIN, E.M., ROBBINS, C.R., AND MCMURDIE, H.F. (1964) Phase Diagrams for Ceramists. Columbus, Ohio: The American Ceramic Society.

Levin, H.L. (2009) The Earth Through Time, 9th edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.


LI, G., BAI, W., SHI, N., FANG, Q., XIONG, M., YANG, J., MA, Z., & RONG, H. (2012) Linzhiite, FeSi2, a redefined and revalidated new mineral species from Luobusha, Tibet, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 1047–1052.


LODDERS, K. (2010) Solar system abundances of the elements. In Principles and Perspectives in Cosmochemistry,

Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (A. Goswami & B.E. Reddy, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, (379–417).


LOMOLINO, M.V. (2000) A call for a new paradigm of island biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9, 1–6.


LOVERING, J.F., WARK, D.A., GLEADOW, A.J.W., & BRITTEN, R. (1974) Lunar monazite; a late-stage (mesostasis) phase in mare basalt. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 21, 164–168.


LOVLEY, D.R., PHILLIPS, E.J.P., GORBY, Y.A., AND LANDA, E.R. (1991) Microbial reduction of uranium . Nature 350:413-416.


LOWENSTEIN; T.K., TIMOFEEFF, M.N., BRENNAN, S.T., HARDIE, L.A., AND DEMICCO, R.V. (2001) Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: Evidence from fluid inclusions. Science 294:1086-1088.


LYONS, T.W., PEINHARD, C.T., & PLANAVSKY, N.J. (2014) The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature 506, 307–314.


LYONS, K., BRIGHAM, C., TRAUT, B., AND SCHWARTZ, M. (2005) Rare species and ecosystem functioning. Conservation Biology, 19, 1019-1024.




MA, X., FOX P., TILMES, C., JACOBS, K., AND WAPLE, A. (2014) Providing global change information for decision making: capturing and presenting provenance. Nature Geosciences, in press.

MA, C. & KROT, A.N. (2014) Hutcheonite, Ca3Ti2(SiAl2) O12, a new garnet mineral from the Allende meteorite:

An alteration phase in a Ca-Al-rich inclusion. American Mineralogist 99, 667–670.


MA, C., BECKETT, J.R., & ROSSMAN, G.R. (2014) Allendeite (Sc4Zr3O12) and hexamolybdenum (Mo,Ru,Fe), two new minerals from an ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende meteorite. American Mineralogist 99, 654–666.


MACARTHUR, R.F. & WILSON, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press,

Princeton, New Jersey, United States.


MADHUSUDHAN, N., HARRINGTON, J., STEVENSON, K.B., NYMEYER, S., CAMPO, C.J., WHEATLEY, P.J., DEMING, D., BLECIC, J., HARDY, R.A., LUST, N.B., ANDERSON, D.R., COLLIER-CAMERON, A., BRITT, C.B.T., BOWMAN, W.C., HEBB, L., HELLIER, C., MAXTED, P.F.L., POLLACCO, D., & WEST, R.G. (2011) A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b. Nature 469, 64–67.


MAHLER, D.L., INGRAM, T., REVELL, L.J., & LOSOS, J.B. (2013) Exceptional convergence on the macroevolutionary landscape in island lizard radiations. Science 341, 292–295.


MANNING, C., SHOCK, E.L., & SVERJENSKY, D.A. (2013) The chemistry of carbon in aqueous fluids at crustal and upper-mantle conditions: Experimental and theoretical constraints. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 75, 109–148.


MARKL, G., MARKS, M.A.W., DERREY, I., AND GTIHRING, J.-E. (2014) Weathering of cobalt arsenides: Natural assemblages and calculated stability relations among secondary Ca-Mg-Co arsenates and carbonates. American Mineralogist 99:44-56.


MARVIN, U.B., CAREY, J.W., & LINDSTROM, M.M. (1989) Cordierite-spinel troctolite, a new magnesium-rich lithology from the lunar highlands. Science 243, 925–928.


MASON, B., MELSON, W.G., & NELEN, J. (1972) Spinel and hornblende in Apollo 14 fines. Lunar Science Institute Contribution 88, 512–514.


MCCUBBIN, F.M., JOLLIFF, B.L., NEKVASIL, H., CARPENTER, P.K., ZEIGLER, R.A., STEELE, A., ELARDO, S.M., & LINDSLEY, D.H. (2011) Fluorine and chlorine abundances in lunar apatite: implications for heterogeneous distributions of magmatic volatiles in the lunar interior. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 5073–5093.



D.M., BOYCE, J.W., & ANAND, M. (2015) Magmatic volatiles (H, C, N, F, S, Cl) in the lunar mantle, crust,

and regolith: Abundances, distributions, processes, and reservoirs. American Mineralogist 100, 1668–1707.


MCDONOUGH, W.F. & SUN, S.S. (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chemical Geology 120, 223–253.


MCGUINNESS, D.L., FOX, P.A., BRODARIC, B., AND KENDALL, E. (2009) The emerging field of semantic scientific knowledge integration. IEEE Intelligent Systems 24:25-26.


MCKAY, D.S. & WENTWORTH, S.J. (1992) Morphology and composition of condensates on Apollo 17 orange and black glass. In Lunar Science Institute, Workshop on Geology of the Apollo 17 Landing Site. SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), 31–36.


MEYER, C. & YANG, S.V. (1988) Tungsten-bearing yttrobetafite in lunar granophyre. American Mineralogist 71,



MITTLEFEHLDT, D.W., MCCOY, T.J., GOODRICH, C.A., & KRACHER, A. (1998) Non-chondritic meteorites from asteroidal bodies. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36, 4.1–4.195.


MOJZSIS, S.J., COATH, C.D., GREENWOOD, J.P., MCKEEGAN, K.D., AND HARRISON, T.M. (2003) Mass­ independent isotope effects in Archean (2.5 to 3.8 Ga) sedimentaiy sulfides determined by ion microprobe analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67: 1635-1658.


MOKHOV, A.V., KARTASHOV, P.M., BOGATIKOV, O.A., ASHIKHMINA, N.A., MAGAZINA, L.O., & KOPORULINA, E.V. (2008) Fluorite, hatchettolite, calcium sulfate, and bastnasite-(Ce) in the lunar regolith from Mare Crisium. Doklady Earth Sciences 422(7), 1178–1180.


MOKHOV, A.V., KARTASHOV, P.M., GORNOSTAEVA, T.A., & BOGATIKOV, O.A. (2011) Native ytterbium of regolith AS Luna-24. Doklady Earth Sciences 441(2), 1692–1694.


MOKHOV, A.V., KARTASHOV, P.M., GORNOSTAEVA, T.A., ASADULIN, E.E., & BOGATIKOV, O.A. (2013) Complex nanospherulites of zinc oxide and native amorphous boron in the lunar regolith from Mare Crisium. Doklady Earth Sciences 448(1), 61–63.


MONOD, J. (1971) Chance and Necessity: Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology. Translated from

the French by A. Wainhouse, Knopf, New York, United States.


MONTGOMERY, D.C., PECK, E.A., AND VINING, G.G. (2006) Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis, Fomih edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 612 pp.


MOROWITZ, H.J. (1992) The Beginnings of Cellular Life: Metabolism Recapitulates Biogenesis. Yale University

Press, New Haven, Connecticut, United States.


MOROWITZ, H.J., HEINZ, B., & DEAMER, D.W. (1988) The chemical logic of a minimum protocell. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 18, 281–287.


MOROWITZ, H.J., KOSTELNIK, J.D., YANG, J., & CODY, G.D. (2000) The origins of intermediary metabolism.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 7704–7708.


MOSTELLER, F. & WALLACE, D.L. (1964) Inference and Disputed Authorship: The Federalist. Addison-Wesley,

Reading, Pennsylvania, United States.


MOUILLOT, D., BELLWOOD, D.R., BARALOTO, C., CHAVE, J., GALZIN, R., HARMELIN-VIVIEN, M., KULBICKI, M., LAVERGNE, S., LAVOREL, S., MOUQUET, N., PAINE, C.E.T., RENAUD, J., AND THUILLER, W. (2013) Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems. PLoS Biology. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001569.


MURAKAMI, T., UTSINOMIYA, S., IMAZU, Y., AND PRASADI, N. (2001) Direct evidence of late Archean to early Proterozoic anoxic atmosphere from a product of 2.5 Ga old weathering. Eaith and Planetaiy Sciences Letters 184:523-528.


MUHLING, J.R., SUROROVA, A.A., & RASMUSSEN, B. (2014) The occurrence and composition of chevkinite-(Ce) and perrierite-(Ce) in tholeiitic intrusive rocks and lunar mare basalt. American Mineralogist 99, 1911–1921.


MUTSCHLER, F.E., ROUGON, D.J., LAVIN, O.P., AND HUGHES, R.D. (1981) PETROS version 6.1 Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289N5QN64NM.




NANCE, R.D., MURPHY, J.B., AND SANTOSH, M. (2014) The supercontinent cycle: A retrospective essay. Gondwana Research 25:4-29.


NAROCK, T., AND FOX, P.A. (2012) From science to e-science to semantic e-science: A heliophysics case study. Computers & Geosciences 46 :248-254.


NAZAROV, M.A., TARASOV, L.S., IVANOV, A.V., & TOBELKO, K.I. (1978) Cohenite from highland breccia of Luna 20. Geokhimiya 1978(5), 752–760 (in Russian).


NISSEN, P.E. (2013) The carbon to oxygen ratio in stars with planets. Astronomy & Astrophysics 552, 73–83.


NIU, F., ZHANG, C., R\'E, C., AND SHAVLIK,  J. (2012) DeepDive: Web-scale knowledge-base construction using statistical learning and inference. Second International Workshop on Searching and Integrating New Web Data Sources. VLDS, pp. 25-28.


NOFFKE, N., CHRISTIAN, D., WACEY, D., AND HAZEN, RM. (2013) Microbially induced sedimentaiy structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Fonnation, Pilbara, Western Australia. Astrobiology 13:1103-1124.


NORDSTROM, D.K., ALPERS, C.N., PTACEK, C.J., AND BLOWES, D.W. (2000) Negative pH and extremely acidic mine waters from Iron Mountain, California. Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 254–258.


NOSHITA, K., ASAMI, T., & UBUKATA, T. (2012) Functional constraints on coiling geometry and aperture inclination in gastropods. Paleobiology 38, 322–334.


NSF (National Science Foundation) (2012) A Community Roadmap for Eaiihcube Data: Discove1y, Access, and Mining. Arlington, Virginia: National Science Foundation, 38 p.




OHMOTO, H., WATANABE, Y., IKEMI, H., POULSON, S.R., AND TAYLOR, B.E. (2006) Sulphur isotope evidence for an oxic Archean atmosphere. Nature 442:908-911.


OLSON, S.L., KUMP, L.R., AND KASTING, J.F. (2013) Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases. Chemical Geology 362:35-43.


O’NEILL, H.S.C. (1991) The origin of the Moon and the early history of the Earth—a chemical model. Part 1:

The Moon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 1135–1157.


ONO, S., EIGENBRODE, J.L., PAVLOV, A.A., KHARECHA, P., RUMBLE, D. III, KASTING, J.F., AND FREEMAN, K.H. (2003) New insights into Archean sulfur cycle from mass-independent sulfur isotope records from the Hamersley Basin, Australia. Eaiih and Planetary Science Letters 213:15-30.


ONO S., SHANKS, W.C., ROUXEL, 0., AND RUMBLE, D. (2007) S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modem seafloor hydrothermal vent sulfides. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71: 1170-1182.




PALME, H. & JONES, A. (2005) Solar system abundances of the elements. In Meteorites, Comets and Planets 1

(H.D. Holland & K.K. Turekian, eds.). Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, England, 41–61.


PAPIKE, J.J., RYDER, G., & SHEARER, C.K. (1998) Lunar samples. Reviews in Mineralogy 36, 5-1–5-188.


PAPINEAU, D., MOJZSIS, S.J., AND SCHMITT, A.K. (2007) Multiple sulfur isotopes from Paleoproterozoic Huronian interglacial sediments and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Eaiih and Planetaiy Science Letters 255:188-212.



AND SPARKS, D. L., 2011. Evaluating  glutamate and aspartate binding mechanisms to rutile  (a­ Ti02) via ATR-FTIR  spectroscopy  and quantmn  chemie-al-e-a-leulatiens-;-  1angrnuir -}/f'.}-7q8- - 1787.


PAIIIN, C.A., BEKKER, A., PLANAVSKY, N:J., SCOTT, C.T., GILL, B.C., PODKOVYROV, V., MASLOV, A., KNOHAUSER, K.O., LALONDE, S.V., LOVE, G.D., POULTON, S.W., AND LYONS, T.W. (2013) Large- scale fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels from the record of U in shales. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 369-370:284-293.


PAVLOV, A.A., HURTGEN, M.T., KASTING, J.F., AND ARTHUR, M.A. (2003) Methane-rich proterozoic atmosphere . Geology 31:87-90.


PEARCE, T. (2011) Convergence and parallelism in evolution: A neo-Gouldian account. British Journal for the

Philosophy of Science 63, 429–448.


PEKOV, I.V. (1998) Minerals First Discovered on the Territory of the Former Soviet Union. Ocean Pictures Limited, Moscow, Russia, 369 p.


PELLEGRINI, C., CERRAL, P., FREGUGLIA, P., BENCI, V., & ISRAEL, G. (EDS.) (2003) Determinism, Holism, and Complexity. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, United States.


PERER, A., AND SHNEIDERMAN, B. (2008) Integrating statistics and visualization: Case studies of gaining clarity during explorat01y data analysis. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, Italy.


PETERS, S.E., AND HEIM, N.A. (2010) The geological completeness of paleontological sampling in North America. Paleobiology 36:61-79.


PETSCH, D.K., PINHA, G.D., DIAS, J.D., AND TAKEDA, A.M. (2015) Temporal nestedness in Chironomidae and the importance of environmental and spatial factors in species rarity. Hydrobiologia, 745, 181-193.


PHILLIPS, B. AND MUAN, A. (1958) Phase equilibria in the system CaO-iron oxide in air and at 1 atm O2 pressure. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41, 445-454.


PLANAVSKY, N., ROUXEL, 0., BEKKER, A., SHAPIRO, R., FRALICK, P., AND KNUDSEN, A. (2009) Iron­ oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in late Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans. Earth and Planetaiy Science Letters 286:230-242.


POTTER, R.W. & BARNES, H.L. (1978) Phase relations in the binary Hg-S. American Mineralogist 63, 1143–1152.


PROKOPH, A.,  SHIELDS, G.A., AND VEIZER, J. (2008) Compilation and time-series analysis of a marine carbonate database 0180, o13C, 87Sr/86Sr, and o34S through Earth history. Earth Science Reviews 87:113-133.


PRUSS, S., FINNEGAN, S., FISCHER, W.W., AND KNOLL, A.H. (2010) Carbonates in skeleton-poor seas: New insights from Cambrian and Ordovician strata of Laurentia. Palaios 25:73-84 .




QUAMMEN, D. (1996) The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. Scribners, New

York, United States.






RABINOWITZ, D. (1981) Seven forms of rarity. In J. Synge [Editor], The Biological Aspects of rare Plant Conservation. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp.205-217.


RABINOWITZ, D., CAIRNS, S., AND DILLON, T. (1986) Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. In M.E. Soulé [Editor], Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, pp.182-204.


RASMUSSEN, B., FLETCHER, I.R., GREGORY, C.J., MUHLING, J.R., & SUVOROVA, A.A. (2012) Tranquillityite: the last lunar mineral comes down to Earth. Geology 40, 83–86. RICE, S.H. (2008) A stochastic version of the Price equation reveals the interplay of deterministic and stochastic processes in evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8(262), 16 p.


RASMUSSEN, B., AND BUICK, R. (1999) Redox state of the Archean atmosphere : Evidence from detrital heavy minerals in ca.3250-2750 Ma sandstones from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Geology 27:115-118.


RASMUSSEN, B., FLETCHER, I.R., BROCKS, J.J.; ET AL. (2008) Reassessing the first appearance of eukaiyotes and cyanobacteria. Nature 455: 1101-1109.


RASMUSSEN, B., FLETCHER, LR., BEKKER, A., MUHLING, J.R., GREGORY, C.J., AND THORNE, A.M. (2012) Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth. Nature 484:498-501.


RDF   Data   Cube   Vocabulary,   World   Wide   Web   Consortium,   on    line    and (last accessed 7 February 2014).


REITH, F., ROGERS, S.L., MCPHAIL, D.C., AND WEBB, D. (2006) Biomineralization of gold: Biofilms on bacterioform gold. Science 313:233-236.


RICARDO, A., CARRIGAN, M.A., OLCOTT, A.N., AND BENNER, S.A. (2004) Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science, 303, 196.


RICHARDSON, S.J., WILLIAMS, P.A., MASON, N.W.H., BUXTON, R.P., COURTNEY, S.P., RANCE, B.D., CLARKSON, B.R., HOARE, R.J.B., ST. JOHN, M.G., AND WISER, S.K. (2012) Rare species drive local trait diversity in two geographically disjunct examples of a naturally rare alpine ecosystem in New Zealand. Journal of Vegetation Science, 23, 626–639.


RICKLEFS, R.E. (2000) Rarity and diversity in Amazonian forest trees. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15, 83-84.


RIGDEN, S.M., AHRENS, T.J., & STOLPER, E.M. (1988) Shock compression of molten silicate: Results for model basaltic composition. Journal of Geophysical Research 93, 367–382.


RIGHTER, K. (2013) Curator comments. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter 36, 1. Retrieved from


RODRIGUEZ, A. & LAIO, A. (2014) Clustering by fast search and find of density peaks. Science 344, 1492–1496.


ROHRBACH, A., BALLHAUS,  C., GOLLA-SCHINDLER,  U., ULMER,  P., KAMENETSKY, V.S., AND KUZMIN, D.V. (2007) Metal saturation in the upper mantle. Nature 449:456-458.


ROSINDELL, J.&CORNELL, S.J. (2009) Species-area curves, neutral models, and long-distance dispersal. Ecology 90, 1743–1750.


ROZELL, E., FOX, P.A., ZHENG, J., AND HENDLER, J. (2012) S2S architecture and faceted browsing applications. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference Companion on World Wide Web, pp. 413-416, ACM.


RYE, R. AND HOLLAND, H.D. (1998) Paleosols and the evolution of atmospheric oxygen: A critical review. American Journal of Science 298 :621-672 .


RUBIN, A.E. (1997a) Mineralogy of meteorite groups. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 32, 231–247.


RUBIN, A.E. (1997b) Mineralogy of meteorite groups: An update. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 32, 733–734.


RUDNICK, R.L. & GAO, S. (2005) Composition of the continental crust. In The Crust 3 (H.D. Holland & K.K. Turekian, eds.). Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, England (1–64).


RUDNICK, R.L. [Editor] (2003) The Crust. In H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian [Editors], Treatise on Geochemistry, Volume 3. Oxford: Elsevier-Pergamon.


RUNNEGAR, B. (1987) Rates and modes of evolution in the Mollusca. In Rates of Evolution (K.S.W. Campbell &

M.F. Day, eds.). Allen and Unwin, London, England (39–60).




SCHINDEL, D.E. (1990) Unoccupied morphospace and the coiled geometry of gastropods; architectural constraint or geometric covariation? In Causes of Evolution: A Paleontological Perspective (R.M. Ross & W.D. Allmon, eds.). National Science Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia (270–304).


SCHWA1IZ, G., MENDEL, R.R., AND RIBBE, M.W. (2009) Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways. Nature 460:839-847.


SCOTT, C., LYONS, T.W., BEKKER, A., SHEN, Y., POULTON, S.W., AND ANBAR, A.D. (2008) Tracing the stepwise oxygenation of the Proterozoic ocean. Nature 452:456-459.


SEAGER, S., KUCHNER, M., HIER-MAJUMDER, C.A., & MILITZER, B. (2007) Mass-radius relationships for solid exoplanets. Astrophysical Journal 669, 1279–1297.


SEDDIO, S.M., JOLLIFF, B.L., KOROTEV, R.L., & CARPENTER, P.K. (2012) Thorite in an Apollo 12 granite fragment and age determination using the electron microprobe. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2012.


SEDDIO, S.M., JOLLIFF, B.L., KOROTEV, R.L., & ZEIGLER, R.A. (2013) Petrology and geochemistry of lunar granite 12032,366-19 and implications for lunar granite petrogenesis. American Mineralogist 98, 1697–1713.


SELLEY, R.C. (1985) Elements of Petroleum Geology. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, United States.


SHANNON, R.D. (1976) Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and

chalcogenides. Acta Crystallographica A32, 751–767.


SHARMA, R.C. & CHANG, Y.A. (1980) A thermodynamic analysis of the copper-sulfur system. Metallographic Transactions 11B, 575–583.


SHEARER, C.K., SHARP, Z.D., BURGER, P.V., MCCUBBIN, F.M., PROVENCIO, P.P., BREARLEY, A.J., & STEELE, A. (2014) Chlorine distribution and its isotopic composition in “rusty rock” 66095. Implications for volatile element enrichments of “rusty rock” and lunar soils, origin of “rusty” alteration, and volatile element behavior on the Moon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 139, 411–433.


SHERVAIS, J.W., TAYLOR, L.A., LAUL, J.C., & SMITH, M.R. (1984) Pristine highland clasts in consortium breccia 14305: petrology and geochemistry. Supplement 1, Journal of Geophysical Research 89, C25–C40.


SHI, N., BAI, W., LI, G., FANG, Q., XIONG, M., YANG, J., MA, Z., & RONG, H. (2012) Naquite, FeSi, a new mineral species from Luobusha, Tibet, western China. Acta Geologica Sinica 86, 533–538.


SHOSHANI, A., AND ROTEM, D. [Editors] (2010) Scientific Data Management: Challenges, Technology, and Deployment. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis, 534 p.


SMITH, J.V. (1974) Lunar mineralogy: A heavenly detective story Presidential Address, Part I. American Mineralogist 59, 231–243.


SMITH, J.V. & STEELE, I.M. (1976) Lunar mineralogy: A heavenly detective story. Part II. American Mineralogist

61, 1059–1116.


SMITH, C.L., DOWNES, H., & JONES, A.P. (2008) Metal and sulphide phases in interstitial veins in “dimict” ureilites—insights into the history and petrogenesis of the ureilite parent body. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 1669.


SPEIGHT, J.G. (1999) The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum. Marcel Dekker, New York, United States.


STAMATATOS, E. (2009) A survey of modern authorship attribution methods. Journal of the American Society for

Information Science and Technology 60, 538–556.


STEELE, A., MCCUBBIN, F.M., FRIES, M., GLAMOCLIJA, M., KATER, L., & NEKVASIL, H. (2010) Graphite in an Apollo 17 impact melt breccia. Science 329, 51.


STIXRUDE, L., AND LITHGOW-BERTELLONI, C. (2005) Thermodynamics of mantle minerals - I.

Physical properties. Geophysical Journal International 162:610-632.


STIXRUDE, L., AND LITHGOW-BE 1IELLONI, C. (2011) Thennodynamics of mantle minerals - II. Phase equilibria, Geophysical Journal International 184:1180-1213.


STOLPER, E., WALKER, D., HAGER, B.H., & HAYS, J.F. (1981) Melt segregation from partially molten source

regions: The importance of melt density and source region size. Journal of Geophysical Research 86, 6261–6271.


STRUNZ, H. & NICKEL, E.H. (2001) Strunz Mineralogical Tables: Chemical-Structural Mineral Classification System, 9th edition. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany, 870 p.


SUZUKI, Y., AND BANFIELD, J.F. (1999) Geomicrobiology of uranium. Reviews in Mineralogy 38:393-432.


SVE1JENSKY, D.A., AND LEE, N. (2010) The Great Oxidation Event and mineral  diversification. Elements 6:31-36.


SVERJENSKY, D. A., HARRISON, B., AND AZZOLINI, D. (2014) Water in the deep Earth: the dielectric constant and the solubilities of quartz and corundum to 60 kb and 1,200°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press.


SVE1JENSKY, D.A., HEMLEY, J.J., AND D'ANGELO, W.M. (1991) Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55:989-1004.




TAN, P.-N., STEINBACH, M., AND KUMAR, V. (2006) Introduction to Data Mining. Boston, MA: Addison- Wesley.


TARTÈSE, R., ANAND, M., JOY, K.H., & FRANCHI, I.A. (2014) H and Cl isotope characteristics of apatite in brecciated lunar meteorites NWA 4472, NWA 773, SAU 169, and Kalahari009. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 49 (S1), 5085.


TAYLOR, G.J. (2009) Ancient lunar crust: Origin, composition, and implications. Elements 5, 17–22.


TAYLOR, S.R. & MCLENNAN, S.M. (2009) Planetary Crusts: Their Composition, Origin and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 378 p.


TAYLOR, G.J. & WIECZOREK, M.A. (2014) Lunar bulk chemical composition: A post-GRAIL reassessment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372, 20130242.


TAYLOR, L.A. & WILLIAMS, K.L. (1973) Cu-Fe-S Phases in Lunar Rocks. American Mineralogist 58, 952–954.


THOMPSON, J.N. (2013) Relentless Evolution. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.


TILMES, C., FOX, P.A., MA, X., MCGUINNESS, D.L., PRIVETTE, A.P., SMITH, A., WAPLE, A., ZEDNIK, S., AND ZHENG, J.G. (2013) Provenance representation for the National Climate Assessment in the Global Change Inf01mation System. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 51:5160-5168.


TKACHEV, A.V. (2011) Evolution of metallogeny of granitic pegmatites associated with orogens throughout geological time. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 350:7-23.


TOWE, K.M. (2002) The problematic rise of Archean oxygen. Science 295:798-799.


TREFIL, J.S., AND R.M. HAZEN (2012) The Sciences: An Integrated Approach, ?1h edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 555 p.


TREIMAN, A.H. (2008) Rhönite in Luna 24 pyroxenes: First find from the Moon, and implications for volatiles in

planetary magmas. American Mineralogist 93, 488–491.


TSCHAUNER, O., MA, C., BECKETT, J.R., PRESCHER, C., PRAKAPENKA, V.B., AND ROSSMAN, G.R. (2014) Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite. Science 346, 1100-1102.






C.S. (2005) 4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 150:561-580.


VANIMAN, D.T. & BISH, D.I. (1990) Yoshiokaite, a new Ca, Al-silicate mineral from the Moon. American Mineralogist 75, 676–686.


VESTIGIAN, K., WOESE, C.R., & GOLDENFELD, N. (2006) Collective evolution and the genetic code. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 8763–8768.


VOICE, P.J., KOWALEWSKI, M., AND ERIKSSON, K.A. (2011) Quantifying the timing and rate of crustal evolution: Global compilation of radiometrically dated detrital zircon grains. The Journal of Geology 119:109-126.




WÄCHTERSHÄUSER, G. (1988) Before enzymes and templates: Theory of surface metabolism. Microbiological Reviews 52(4), 452–484.


WÄCHTERSHÄUSER, G. (1990) Evolution of the first metabolic cycles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87, 200–204.


WÄCHTERSHÄUSER, G. (1992) Groundworks for an evolutionary biochemistry: The iron-sulfur world. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 58, 85–201.


WALKER, J.C.G. (1977) Evolution of the Atmosphere. Macmillan, New York.


WALKER, J.C.G., HAYS, P.B., AND KASTING,  J.B. (1981) A negative feedback mechanism for the long-te1m stabilization of Earth's surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 86:9776-9782.


WARREN, P.H. (2005) “New” lunar meteorites: implications for composition of the global lunar surface, lunar crust, and the bulk Moon. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, 477–506.


WELCH, J.H. AND GUTT, W. (1959) Tricalcium silicate and its stability within the system CaO-SiO2. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 42, 11-15.


WENK, H.-R. & BULAKH, A. (2004) Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, U.K.


WEST, P., ROZELL, E., ZEDNIK, S., FOX, P., AND MCGUINNESS, D.L. (2009) Semantically enabled temporal reasoning in a virtual observatmy. In OWL Experiences  and Direction (OWLED), R. Hoekstra and P.F. Patel-Schneider, editors.


WILLIAMS, R.J.P. (1981) Natural selection of the chemical elements. Proceedings  of the Royal Society London  B213:361-397.




YOUNG, P.A., DESCH, S.J., ANBAR, A.D., BARNES, R., HINKEL, N.R., KOPPARAPU, R.,  ADHUSUDHAN, N., MONGA, N., PAGANO, M.D., RINER, M.A., SCANNAPIECO E., SHIM, S.-H., & TRUITT, A. (2014) Astrobiological stoichiometry. Astrobiology 14, 603–626.




ZAHNLE, K.J., KASTING, J.F., & POLLACK, J.B. (1988) Evolution of a steam atmosphere during Earth’s accretion. Icarus 74, 62–97.


ZAHNLE, K.J., CATLING, D.C., AND CLAIRE, M.W. (2013) The rise of oxygen and the hydrogen hourglass. Chemical Geology 362:26-34.


ZHANG, J., NIELSEN, S.E., GRAINGER, T.N., KOHLER, M., CHIPCHAR, T., AND FARR, D.R. (2014) Sampling plant diversity and rarity at landscape scales: importance of sampling time in species detectability. PLoS ONE 9, e95334. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103920.


ZHANG, J. & KUMAR, S. (1997) Detection of convergent and parallel evolution at the amino acid sequence level.

Molecular Biology Evolution 14, 527–536.